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321 


HERRING  SPAWNING  SURVEYS 


IN  SOUTHEASTERN  ALASKA 


Marine  Biological  Laboratory 

"L I  BR  .A.  R.  "ST 


WOODS  HOLE,  MASS, 


SPECIAL  SCIENTIFIC  REPORT- FISHERIES  No.  321 


UNITED  STATES  DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR 
FISH  AND  WILDLIFE  SERVICE 


EXPLANATORY  NOTE 

The  series  embodies  results  of  investigations,  usually  of  restricted 
scope,  intended  to  aid  or  direct  management  or  utilization  practices  and  as 
guides  for  administrative  or  legislative  action.    It  is  issued  in  limited  quantities 
for  Official  use  of  Federal,  State  or  cooperating  agencies  and  in  processed  form 
for  economy  and  to  avoid  delay  in  publication . 


United  States  Department  of  the  Interior,  Fred  A.  Seaton,  Secretary 
Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  Arnie  J.  Suomela,  Commissioner 


HERRING  SPAWNING  SURVEYS  IN  SOUTHEASTERN  ALASKA 


by 

Bernard  Einar  Skud 

Fishery  Research  Biologist 

Bureau  of  Commercial  Fisheries 


United  States  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service 
Special  Scientific  Report — Fisheries  No.  321 


Washington,  D.  C. 
December  1959 


CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Methods  of  aerial  survey 2 

Spawning  localities 

Time  of  spawning 4 

Characteristics  of  spawning  beaches 4 

Summary 4 

Literature  cited 16 


li 


Figure  1. — Aerial  views  of  herring  milt  clouds  at  Fish  Egg  Island 
near  Craig,  Alaska. 


111 


HERRING  SPAWNING  SURVEYS  IN  SOUTHEASTERN  ALASKA 

by 

Bernard  Einar  Skud 
U.  S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service 
Galveston,  Texas 


ABSTRACT 

Aerial  surveys  to  observe  milt 
herring  in  Southeastern  Alaska  waters  ho 
assessing  the  extent  of  spawn  deposition 
altitudes  of  500  to  700  feet  and  at  crui 
mileage  of  beach  utilized  for  spawning  i 
of  navigation  charts.  The  surveys  have 
80  previously  unreported  spawning  beache 
preliminary  flights  have  also  added  valu 
of  spawning  and  the  physical  characteris 


clouds  produced  by  spawning 
Id  promise  as  a  method  for 

Flights  are  conducted  at 
sing  speeds  of  120  knots.  The 
s  recorded  on  reduced  prints 
resulted  in  the  discovery  of 
s.   Observations  during  these 
able  information  on  the  time 
tics  of  the  beaches. 


INTRODUCTION 

Biological  studies  of  Pacific  herring, 
Clupea  harengus  pallasi,  in  Alaska  have 
provided  valuable  information  regarding  the 
life  history  and  behavior  of  this  species 
(Rounsefell,  1930),  but  violent  fluctua- 
tions in  catches  have  not  been  adequately 
explained.   Catch  statistics  suggest  that 
changes  in  abundance  are  responsible  for 
the  fluctuations,  but  other  evidence  sug- 
gests that  availability  of  herring  to  the 
fishing  gear  may  vary  considerably. 

To  resolve  this  difference,  abundance 
estimates  based  on  other  than  catch-effort 
data  were  considered.   Canadian  biologists 
had  developed  one  such  method  by  appraising 
egg  deposition  at  time  of  spawning.   Ground 
surveys  measuring  egg  density  and  length 
and  width  of  areas  utilized  for  spawning 
afford  a  measure  of  total  mileage  of  deposi- 
tion, which  is  used  as  a  comparative  index 
of  abundance  (Taylor,  1955).   In  Southeast- 
ern Alaska  spawning  areas  are  so  widespread 
that  intensive  ground  surveys  to  assess 
spawn  deposition  are  not  feasible.   There- 
fore, a  method  of  aerial  assessment  was 
developed  through  the  collaboration  of  L.  N. 


Kolloen  1/ f   G.  W.  Hilsinger,  and  C.  H. 
Elling  of  the  Bureau  of  Commercial  Fisher- 
ies, and  J.  C.  Stevenson  of  the  Fisheries 
Research  Board  of  Canada.   In  the  spring  of 
1953  a  systematic  aerial  survey  was  made  in 
British  Columbia  and  Southeastern  Alaska. 
The  success  of  this  initial  survey  encour- 
aged further  investigation,  and  somewhat 
more  refined  surveys  have  continued  in 
Southeastern  Alaska. 

The  prime  objective  of  aerial  surveys 
is  to  determine  the  mileage  of  beach  used 
for  spawning  in  a  given  area.  The  extent 
of  spawn  deposition  is  assumed  to  indicate 
size  of  spawning  population.   In  addition 
to  comparison  of  annual  changes  in  actual 
mileage  utilized,  changes  in  areas  used  for 
spawning  can  be  studied  and  may  help  to 
determine  environmental  requirements  for 


1/  The  author  especially  wishes  to  acknowl- 
edge the  late  L.  N.  Kolloen  who  initi- 
ated this  research  and  who  unfortunately 
died  in  a  plane  crash  while  on  official 
business  in  Southeastern  Alaska  on  Sep- 
tember 1,  1954. 


spawning.      Aerial   surveys    also    afford    a 
means  of   studying   timing  of   spawning   activ- 
it  ies. 

The  purpose  of   this    report   is    (1)   to 
describe   the  procedures  of  the   aerial   survey 
and   (2)   to    record  preliminary   information 
gained  from  surveys  of   the  past   three   years. 


METHODS   OF  AERIAL  SURVEY 

The  Pacific   herring   spawns   in  inter- 
tidal   areas,    and  during   spawning   activity 
clouds  of  milt    appear   in   the  water   along 
the   shoreline.      These  milt   clouds   may  be 
readily  observed  from   the    air    (fig.  1);   they 
have  been  spotted  from  as   high  as   6,500 
feet,    and   are   most   certainly  visible  from 
greater  heights.      Most   aerial   surveys   are 
conducted   at    altitudes  between  500  and  700 
feet.      In  clear  weather,    milt   clouds   have 
been  seen  at   three  miles  from  these   heights. 
The   exact   coloration  of  the   milt  varies 
with  lighting   conditions.      During  bright, 
cloudless   days   the  milt   appears  milky  white, 
but   during  overcast   periods   it  may  vary 
from  pale   yellow   to   yellowish  green.      The 
density  of   the  milt    also   produces  variations 
in  color. 

The   rate   at  which  milt   disperses   and 
is  no   longer  visible  depends  on  tidal 
action,   wind,    and  density  of  deposition. 
The   schooling  behavior  of  Pacific   herring 
is   such  that   spawning   is   usually  intense 
and   continuous,    and  dispersion  of  milt  from 
an  area  is   rarely  completed   in  a  day's   time. 
After   the  milt   has  disappeared,    the  beach 
utilized  for  spawning  may  be   detected  by 
the   presence  of  sea  gulls   actively  feeding 
on  eggs.      Gulls   line   the   spawning  beach  in 
countless   thousands   and  distinctly  outline 
the   areas  of  egg  deposition.      Observations 
are   classified   as    (1)    active   spawn  when 
milt    is   visible   and   (2)   old  spawn  when 
gulls    are   the  only  evidence  of   spawning. 

Aerial   surveys   require   an  observer 
familiar  with  the   territory   and   character- 
istics of  spawning  beaches.      Aircraft   used 
thus  far  for  surveys    (Grumman  Goose   and 
Super  Widgeon)    cruise    at   speeds  of   120 
knots,    and   though   a  trained  observer  would 
have   little  difficulty  locating   specific 
landmarks,    the   novice   might  easily  be   con- 
fused.     When  necessary,    two  or   three   passes 
are   made  over   the   same   grounds   to   ensure 
accurate  mileage   determinations.      During 


flight   the  observer   plots   the   entire   route 
of   the   survey  on  reduced  prints   of  naviga- 
tion charts   and  marks   beach    areas   used  for 
spawning.      After  each  flight   the  observer 
measures   the   spawning  beach  marked  on  the 
chart   and  determines   the   mileage  observed. 

Time  of   spawning  varies   in  each   area, 
and   to  provide   coverage  of   all  major  spawn- 
ing  areas,    surveys   are  made  from  mid-March 
to   mid-May.      Spawning   in   any   location  may 
continue  for   as   long   as   five  weeks    and   re- 
peated  flights    are   necessary  to    adequately 
assess   egg  deposition.        Results  of   all 
flights    in  a  given   area  are   compiled  on  a 
single  master   chart.      This   provides    a  compo- 
site  picture  of   the   spawning  beach  utilized 
during   the   season.      The    1955   master   chart 
of  one  of   the   major   spawning   areas   is  pre- 
sented  in  figure  2. 

Attempts  to   standardize   survey  methods 
have  met  with   several  obstacles  of  which 
weather   conditions   are   most   important    and 
govern  the  days   selected  for   survey  either 
because  flying   is    impossible,    or  visibility 
is   so   poor   that   surveys    are  not   practical. 
Yearly  variations    in  time  of   spawning  pos- 
sible  negate   the   necessity  of  flying  on  a 
given  day.      Rather,    coverage  or   number  of 
days   and  hours  flown  would   appear   to   be  of 
greater   importance,    so   that   standardization 
of  flying  time  would   provide   a  useful   com- 
parative  index,   whereas   surveys  on  given 
days   could  well   distort   such   an   index. 

Availability  of  aircraft   has   also   been 
a  factor   in  standardizing  methods.      Avail- 
able flight   time   has   limited   the   extent 
of  surveys,   which  of  necessity  have  been 
centered   in  areas  of   concentrated  spawning 
activity.      Thorough  and   complete   coverage 
has   been   attained   in  these   area,    but    in 
areas  of  very   light   spawning   there   has  been 
no    standardized   coverage. 

The  goal  of  future  survey  work  is  to 
develop  a  standardized  method  of  survey  from 
which  the  size  of  spawning  populations  can 
be  estimated.  Route  and  area  of  coverage, 
time  lapse  between  flights,  and  numbers  of 
surveys  per   area  have  yet   to  be  established. 


SPAWNING  LOCALITIES 

Rounsefell    (1930)    lists   the   reported 
spawning   areas  of  herring  from  California 
to    the  Bering  Sea.        Aerial    surveys   have 


Figure  2. — Master  chart  of  a  major  spawning  area. 


substantiated  many  areas  in  Rounsef ell's 
listing  for  Southeastern  Alaska  and  also 
have  located  additional  spawning  areas. 
Aerial  surveys  also  have  shown  that  areas 
utilized  for  spawning  may  differ  from  year 
to  year.   Some  areas  listed  by  Rounsefell 
have  not  been  utilized  in  recent  years. 
Tables  1  to  5  and  figures  3  to  8  list  spawn- 
ing areas  in  Southeastern  Alaska  discovered 
by  the  aerial  survey  method  and  compare 
them  with  Rounsefell's  listing. 

The  points  listed  represent  definitive 
landmarks  nearest  actual  spawning  beaches 
and  carry  no  significance  as  to  extent  of 
spawning.   Some  locations  encompass  far  more 
ground  than  was  utilized  for  spawning  and 
others  only  a  fraction  of  the  total  spawning 
area.   For  example,  Pybus  Bay  (No.  16  on 
fig.  6)  spawning  includes  but  a  very  small 
portion  of  the  bay;   on  the  other  hand, 
spawning  at  Fish  Egg  Island  (No.  14  on  fig. 
5)  occurs  around  the  entire  island.   Spawn- 
ing has  been  observed  by  air  on  20  of  the  57 
spawning  beaches  listed  by  Rounsefell,  and 
82  new  beaches  have  been  located  since  1953. 
Extensive  aerial  surveys,  rather  than  an 
increase  in  beaches  actually  used  for  spawn- 
ing, probably  explain  the  large  number  of 
new  spawnings  discovered.   There  are  three 
possible  explanations  why  the  37  beaches 
listed  by  Rounsefell  were  not  detected  by 
aerial  survey:   (1)  Changes  may  have  taken 
place  in  spawning  locales  since  1930;   (2) 
timing  of  aerial  surveys  may  not  have  been 
synchronized  with  time  of  spawning  in  some 
areas;  and  (3)  spawning  beaches  included 
those  reported  by  local  residents. 


TIME  OF  SPAWNING 


Rounsefell  (1930)  described  a  north- 
erly and  westerly  progression  in  spawning 
time  along  the  Pacific  coast  from  Califor- 
nia to  the  Bering  Sea.  Although  some 
spawning  areas  in  Southeastern  Alaska  follow 
this  same  progression,  other  areas  do  not. 
The  earliest  spawning  occurs  in  the  Craig 
area  during  the  last  two  weeks  of  March, 
followed  by  the  Kah  Shakes  and  Sitka  areas 
in  late  March  and  early  April,  and  the  Auke 
Bay  area  in  late  April  and  early  May.   The 
Behm  Canal,  Etolin  Island,  and  areas  in  the 
vicinity  of  Frederick  Sound  are  somewhat 
erratic  in  time  of  spawning.   Spawning  has 
been  reported  in  early  April  and  in  June. 
At  present  no  explanation  for  variance  in 
spawning  progression  is  apparent.   Differ- 
ences in  environmental  requirements  of 
different  races  could,  of  course,  influence 
time  of  spawning. 


CHARACTERISTICS  OF  SPAWNING  BEACHES 

In  conjunction  with  aerial  surveys, 
a  few  ground  surveys  have  been  undertaken. 
Considerable  variation  of  physical  charac- 
teristics exists  among  the  beaches  examined. 
Spawning  beaches  at  Fish  Egg  Island  (fig. 
5)  are  for  the  most  part,  gently  sloping 
gravel  beaches  with  patches  of  eelgrass 
(Zostera)  ,  rockweed  (Fucus ) ,  and  vine  kelp 
(Macrocystis) .   In  contrast,  spawning 
beaches  in  Pearl  Harbor  (fig.  7)  are  steep, 
rocky  shores  covered  with  rockweed  in  the 
intertidal  zone  and  beds  of  bladder  kelp 
(Nereocystis)  in  deeper  water.   Eggs  were 
attached  to  all  vegetation  but  predominant- 
ly to  eelgrass  and  rockweed.   Unidentified 
vegetation  was  utilized  to  a  much  lesser 
degree. 


In  some  areas  the  same  spawning 
beaches  are  utilized  annually,  whereas  in 
others  there  is  a  definite  change  in  loca- 
tion of  spawning  beaches  from  year  to  year. 
Observations  during  the  past  three  years 
indicate  that  time  of  spawning  varies  less 
in  areas  where  the  same  beaches  are  utilized 
year  after  year.   For  example,  the  first 
spawning  of  the  Craig  population  in  1953  was 
reported  on  March  23,  in  1954  on  March  23, 
and  in  1955  on  March  28.  This  initial  spawn- 
ing was  always  on  the  west  shore  of  Fish  Egg 
Island.    In  the  Behm  Canal  area,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  first  spawning  was  reported 
on  April  6  at  Helm  Bay  in  1953,  on  April  26 
at  Indian  Point  in  1954,  and  on  April  19  at 
Caamano  Point  in  1955. 


SUMMARY 

A  method  of  aerial  survey,  pioneered 
by  L.  N.  Kolloen,  has  been  developed  to 
observe  spawning  activities  of  herring  in 
Alaska.   Surveys  are  conducted  at  altitudes 
of  500  to  700  feet.   Reduced  prints  of 
navigation  charts  are  used  to  plot  survey 
routes  and  locations  of  beach  areas  used 
for  spawning.   Observations  of  spawning  are 
recorded  as  "active  spawn"  when  milt  is 
present  and  "old  spawn"  when  the  only  evi- 
dence of  spawn  is  birds  in  the  area. 

A  comparison  of  Southeastern  Alaska 
spawning  beaches  located  by  air  and  those 


SOUTHEASTERN     ALASKA 


C.  E<Jg«cumb«J- 

Biorko  H 


CAPE   OMMANEY 


20  miles 


DIXON      ENTR  AN  C  E 


Figure  3. — Map  of  Southeastern  Alaska  showing  the  six  main  spawning  areas 
(circled)  and  the  boundaries  of  subsequent  figures  used  to  lo- 
cate specific  spawning  beaches. 


Figure  4. — Chart  of  spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Ketchikan. 


Table  1.  --Spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Ketchikan 

(x  =  spawning  observed;  o  =  no  spawning  observed; 
-  =  not  surveyed) 


Aerial  survey 


Number 

Locality 

Rounsefell 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1 

Foggy  Bay 

X 

X 

X 

2 

Kirk  Point 

X 

X 

X 

3 

Kah  Shakes  Cove 

o 

X 

X 

4 

Kah  Shakes  Point 

o 

o 

X 

5 

Annette  Point 

o 

X 

o 

6 

Ham  Island 

o 

X 

X 

7 

Mountain  Point 

o 

X 

o 

8 

George  Inlet 

- 

X 

o 

9 

Clover  Pass 

X 

X 

o 

10 

Loring 

X 

o 

o 

o 

11 

Indian  Point 

o 

X 

o 

12 

Spacious  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

o 

13 

Port  Steward 
Morgan's  Cove- 

X 

o 

o 

o 

14 

X 

15 

Point  Francis 

X 

X 

X 

16 

Raymond  Cove 

X 

X 

X 

17 

Wadding  Cove 

o 

X 

o 

18 

Trunk  Island 

X 

o 

X 

o 

19 

Helm  Bay 

X 

X 

o 

20 

Smuggler's  Cove 

o 

X 

o 

21 

Bond  Bay 

X 

o 

X 

22 

Caamano  Point 

X 

o 

o 

X 

23 

Kasaan  Village 

X 

o 

o 

24 

Sandy  Point 

o 

o 

X 

25 

Karta  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

26 

Tolstoi  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

27 

N.  E.    of  Ship  Island 

o 

o 

X 

28 

Meyer's  Chuck 

X 

o 

o 

o 

29 

Lemesurier  Point 

X 

X 

X 

30 

Union  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

o 

31 

Vixen  Inlet 

X 

o 

o 

o 

32 

Stones  Island 

X 

o 

o 

33 

Etolin  Island 

X 

o 

X 

34 

Kelp  Point 

o 

- 

X 

35 

Stanhope  Island 

o 

- 

X 

36 

Marble  Point 

o 

- 

X 

37 

Burnett  Inlet 

o 

- 

X 

1  /    Local  name,    exact  location  unknown. 


Figure  5. — Chart  of  spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Craig. 


Table  2.  --Spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Craig 

(x  =  spawning  observed;  o  =  no  spawning  observed; 
-  =  not  surveyed) 

Aerial  survey 
Number Locality Rounsefell  1953      1954      1955 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


Rose  Inlet 

X 

o 

- 

- 

Goat  Island 

o 

- 

X 

Trocadero  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Suemez  Island 

X 

o 

o 

Baker  Island 

X 

o 

o 

Coronados  Islands 

o 

o 

X 

Port  Bagial 

X 

o 

X 

Cape  Suspiro 

X 

X 

X 

Bellana  Islands 

X 

o 

o 

Craig  small  boat  harbor 

X 

X 

X 

Crab  Bay 

X 

X 

X 

Craig 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Fish  Egg  Island 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Klawock  Reef 

X 

o 

X 

Clam  Island 

X 

X 

o 

X 

Wadleigh  Island 

X 

X 

X 

Klawock  Inlet 

o 

X 

X 

Alberto  Islands 

o 

X 

X 

Abbess  Island 

X 

X 

X 

Shinaku  Inlet 

X 

X 

X 

Warmchuck  Inlet 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Tonowek  Narrows 

X 

o 

o 

- 

Tuxekan  Passage 

X 

o 

o 

- 

Sierra  Sound 

X 

o 

o 

- 

Shakan  Pass   (El 

X 

o 

o 

— 

Capitan  Pass) 

Local  names,    exact  locations  unknown: 


Sugar  Point 
Eleven  Mile 
Hornbrooke  Island 


x 
x 
x 


Figure  6. — Chart  of  spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Frederick  Sound. 


10 


Table  3. --Spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Frederick  Sound 
(x  =  spawning  observed;  o  =  no  spawning  observed; 
-  =  not  surveyed) 

Aerial  survey 
Number Locality Rounsefell  1953      1954      1955 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


Ideal  Cove 

mm 

o 

X 

Hicks  Point 

X 

o 

o 

Little  Duncan  Bay 

o 

o 

X 

Duncan  Canal 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Point  Baker 

o 

X 

o 

No  Name  Bay 

o 

X 

X 

Elena  Bay 

o 

X 

- 

Rocky  Pass  Inlet 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Port  Camden 

o 

o 

X 

Saginaw  Bay 

X 

o 

- 

Hamilton  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Kake 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Cape  Bendel 

o 

X 

o 

Farragut  Bay 

o 

X 

o 

Port  Houghton 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Pybus  Bay 

X 

o 

X 

o 

Pleasant   Bay 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Mole  Harbor 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Flaw  Point 

o 

X 

o 

Glass  Peninsula  west 

X 

X 

o 

shore 

11 


CONTINUATION 
LYNN    CANAL 


^Eogle   Hbr 
|  Pearl    Hbr 


Figure  7. — Chart  of  spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Auke  Bay. 


12 


Table  4.  --Spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Alike  Bay 

(x  =  spawning  observed;  o  =  no  spawning  observed; 
-  =  not  surveyed) 

Aerial  survey 
Number Locality Rounsefell  1953      1954      1955 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


Idaho  Inlet 

X 

- 

o 

- 

Mud  Bay 

X 

- 

o 

- 

Flynn  Cove 

X 

- 

o 

M 

Port  Frederick 

X 

- 

o 

- 

Douglas  Island 

X 

X 

o 

o 

Spuhn  Island 

X 

o 

o 

Coghlan  Island 

X 

X 

o 

X 

Auke  Bay 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Auke  Cape 

X 

X 

X 

Point  Louisa 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Point  Lena 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Lena  Cove 

X 

o 

X 

X 

Point  Stephens 

X 

o 

o 

X 

Tee  Karbor 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Pearl  Harbor 

X 

X 

X 

Eagle  Harbor 

X 

X 

X 

Eagle  River 

o 

X 

X 

Mainland  east  of  Benj 

amin 

X 

X 

X 

Island 

Bridget  Cove 

X 

X 

X 

Berners  Bay  (Echo  Cove) 

o 

X 

o 

Flat  Bay 

- 

X 

X 

Nudik  Point 

m 

X 

X 

Tanani  Point 

- 

o 

X 

13 


Figure  8. — Chart  of  spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Sitka. 


14 


Table  5.  --Spawning  beaches  in  the  vicinity  of  Sitka 

(x  =  spawning  observed;  o  =  no  spawning  observed; 
-  =  not  surveyed) 

Aerial  survey 
Number Locale Rounsefell 1953      1954      1955 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 

1/     Rounsefell  reports  spawning  from  Silver  Bay  to  Whitestone  Narrows. 

Presumably  this  was  not  continuous  and  therefore  may  or  may  not  include 
the  beaches  utilized  in  recent  years. 

2  /    Exact  location  unknown,   presumably  near  Hood  Bay. 


Port  Alexander 

X 

M 

- 

- 

Redfish  Bay 

X 

o 

- 

o 

Biorka  Island 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Redoubt  Bay 

o 

o 

X 

Kidney  Cove 

X 

o 

X 

Ilput  Island 

o 

o 

X 

Taigud  Islands 

X 

X 

X 

Korga  Island 

X 

X 

X 

Kizhuchia  Creek 

X 

X 

X 

Caution  Island 

X 

X 

X 

Povorotni  Point 

X 

X 

X 

Mielkoi  Cove 

X 

X 

X 

Three  Entrance  Bay 

X 

X 

X 

Cape  Burunof 

X 

o 

X 

Pirate  Cove 

X 

X 

X 

Samsing  Cove 

X 

X 

X 

Sandy  Cove 

X 

o 

X 

Deep  Inlet 

X 

o 

o 

Aleutkina  Bay 

X 

o 

X 

Leesoffskaia  Bay 

o 

X 

X 

Silver  Bay 

1/ 
Jamestown  Bay- 
Whale  Islandi' 
Apple  Island—' 
Kasiana  Island-r 
Middle  Island— 
Starrigavan  Bay—' 

X 

X 

o 
o 

o 

X 

o 
o 

X 

X 

o 

o 

X 

o 

X 

X 

X 

o 

o 

X 

X 

o 

o 

X 

X 

o 

o 

X 

Whitestone  Narrows 

X 

o 

o 

o 

Kakul  Narrows 

o 

X 

o 

Kelp  Bay 

o 

X 

- 

Hood  Bay 

X 

o 

o 

- 

Killisnoo  Lagoon 

X 

o 

o 

- 

Kootznahoo  Inlet    , 

2/ 
Stretchers  Cove— 

X 
X 

o 

o 

- 

15 


listed  by  Rounsefell  in  1930  show  that  84 
additional  beaches  have  been  located  since 
1953.   However,  spawning  has  not  been 
observed  on  37  beaches  listed  by  Rounsefell. 
The  large  number  of  new  spawnings  discovered 
is  accredited  to  make  extensive  coverage 
afforded  by  aerial  surveys. 

Each  year  the  initial  spawning  in 
Southeastern  Alaska  occurs  in  the  vicinity 
of  Craig  during  late  March.  Kah  Shakes, 
Sitka,  and  Auke  Bay  spawnings  follow  and 
are  usually  completed  in  early  May.   Spawn- 
ing times  in  Behm  Canal,  Etolin  Island,  and 
Frederick  Sound  are  variable  and  have  been 
reported  in  late  April,  May,  and  early  June. 
Some  areas  do  not  conform  to  the  northerly 
and  westerly  progression  in  spawning  time 
described  by  Rounsefell  (1930). 


LITERATURE  CITED 

ROUNSEFELL,  GEORGE  A. 

1930.   Contribution  to  the  biology  of 

the  Pacific  herring,  Clupea  pal- 
lasii,  and  the  condition  of  the 
fishery  in  Alaska.  Butlletin  of 
the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Fisheries, 
vol.  46,  pp.  225-320.   Document 
No.  1080. 

TAYLOR,    F.    H.    C. 

1955.      The  Pacific  herring   (Clupea  pal- 
lasii)    along   the   Pacific   coast 
of  Canada.      International   North 
Pacific   Fisheries  Commission, 
pp.    105-128. 


Considerable  variation  was  noted   in 
physical   characteristics  of   spawning  beaches, 
but   ground   surveys    indicated   that   most   eggs 
were   attached   to  eelgrass  or  rockweed. 


16 


INT.DUP.,D.C60-   49  812 


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